Geology, Geochemistry and Some Genetic Discussion of The IIC Anomaly, Bafq Ditrict, Central Iran


  • Mansoureh Shirnavard Shirazi PhD Candidate, Department of Earth science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohmmad Lotfi Professor, Department of Earth Science, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Nima Nezafati Assistant Professor, Department of Earth science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Arash Gourabjiripour Assistant Professor, Department of Natural Resources, Myianeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.


Discussão genética, Geoquímica, REE, Depósito de ferro IIC, Bafq, Irã


Zaqia IIC anomaly is located in the east of Bafq city in Yazd province. Alteration associated with mineralization has appeared within volcanic, intrusive and sedimentary rocks. The set of alterations of this anomaly consist potassium, sericitic and silicate alterations, with less sodic-calcic alterations. Iron minerals are observed in the form of veins and masses with various compositions in this deposit. Iron ore in Zaqia IIC anomaly is related to magma and hydrothermal fluids. A collection of accumulated zones is composed of high-temperature minerals at depth to subvolcanic assemblages on the surface. REE patterns in iron ores in IIC anomalies indicate LREE enrichment and Eu negative anomaly. The negative Eu anomaly shows the reducing conditions of the mineralizing fluid. Isotopic studies have been conducted to examine the source of the fluid. The mineralizing fluid source in this anomaly is sedimentary-metamorphism. Field observations, mineralogy, alterations along with ore geochemical data show that a magmatic fluid is turned to an iron-rich brine fluid; moreover, an IIC anomaly is formed.


BAJWAH, Z. U.; SECCOMBE, P. K.; OFFLER, R. Trace element distribution Co:Ni ratio and genesis of big Canada iron-copper deposit, New South Wales, Australia Mineralium Deposita, v. 22, 1987. p. 292-300.

BARATIAN, M.; ARIAN, M. A.; YAZDI, A. Petrology and Petrogenesis of Siah Kooh volcanic rocks in the eastern Alborz. GeoSaberes, 11, 2020. P. 349-363. doi:

BARTON, M. D.; JOHNSON, D. A. Alternative brine sources for Fe-oxide (Cu–Au) systems: Implications for hydrothermal alteration and metals. In: PORTER, T. M. (Ed.), Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold and Related Deposits: A Global Perspective. Australian Mineral Foundation: Glenside, SA, 2000, p. 43–60.

BAZOOBANDI, M. H.; ARIAN, M. A.; EMAMI, M. H.; TAJBAKHSH, G.; YAZDI, A. Petrology and Geo-chemistry of Dikes in the North of Saveh in Iran. Open Journal of Marine Science, 6, 2016. p. 210-222. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2016.62017

CORNELL, R. M.; SCHWERTMANN, U. The iron oxides. 2nd. Wiley: VCH; 2003.

CUNEY, M.; EMETZ, A.; MERCADİER, J.; MYKCHAYLOV, V.; SHUNKO, V.; YUSLENKO, A. Uranium deposits associated with Na-metasomatism from central Ukraine: a review of some of the major deposits and genetic constraints. Ore Geology Reviews, n.44, 2012, p. 82–106.

DALİRAN, F. Kiruna-type iron oxide–apatite ores and -apatititesǁ of the Bafq district, Iran, with an emphasis on the REE geochemistry of their apatites. A Global perspective, n.2, 2002. p. 303–320.

DALİRAN, F.; STOSCH, G.; WİLİAMS, P. Multistage metasomatism and mineralization at hydrothermal Fe oxide-REE-apatite deposits and apatitites of the Bafgh district, central-east Iran. In: STANELY, C. J. (eds.) Digging Deeper, pp. 1501_1504. Proceedings 9th Biennial SGA Meeting Dublin, Ireland Ficher, R. P. 1950, Uranium Bearing Sandeston Deposits of the Colorado Plateau: Economic Geology, v. 45, 2007. p. 1-11.

DUPUİS, C.; BEAUDOİN, G. Discriminant diagrams for iron oxide trace element fingerprinting of mineral deposit types: Mineralium Deposita, v. 46, 2011. p. 319– 335.

FAURE, G. Isotopes: Principles and Applications. Wiley Publications: Upper Saddle Rivers, 2005.

FÖRSTER, H.; JAFARZADEH, A. The Bafq mining district in central Iran-a highly mineralized Infracambrian volcanic field. Economic Geology, 89, 1994. p. 1697–1721.

HEIDARIAN, H.; LENTZ, D. R.; ALIREZAEI, S.; MCFARLANE, C. R. M.; PEIGHAMBARI, S. Multiple Stage Ore Formation in the Chadormalu Iron Deposit, Bafq Metallogenic Province, Central Iran: Evidence from BSE Imaging and Apatite EPMA and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology. Minerals, n. 8(3) 87, 2018

HENDERSON, P. Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1989.

HİTZMAN, M. W. Iron oxide–Cu–Au deposits: what, where, when, and why? In: Porter TM (ed) Hydrothermal iron oxide– copper–gold and related deposits—a global perspective. PGC Publishing, Vol. 1. 2000. P. 9–25.

HİTZMAN, M. W. Olympic Dam type Fe-Cu-REE deposits - a preliminary model and an example from the Proterozoic of Yukon Territory, Canada [abs.]. International Geology Congress, Abstracts, Kyoto, 1992. p. 3.

HOEFS, J. Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature, 2004- 2015.

HUMPHRİS, S. E. The mobility of the rare earh elements in the crust. In: Henderson P(ed) Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1989. p 317–342.

Jafari, H. R.; Yazdi, A. Radioactive Anomalies in 1: 50000 Dehbakri Sheet, South of Kerman Prov-ince, Iran. Open Journal of Geology, 04(08), 2014. p.399-405. doi:10.4236/ojg.2014.48031

LOTTERMOSER, B. G. Rare earth elements and hydrothermal ore formation processes. Ore Geology Reviews, v. 7, Issue 1, 1992. p. 25- 41.

MOHSENİ, S.; AFTABİ, A. Structural, textural, geochemical and isotopic signatures of synglaciogenic Neoproterozoic banded iron formations (BIFs) at Bafq mining district (BMD), Central Iran: The possible Ediacaran missing link of BIFs in Tethyan metallogeny. Ore Geology Reviews. OREGEO 1525, 2015.

NASH, W. P. Fluorine, Chlorine and OH-bearing minerals in Skaergaard intrusion. American Journal of Sciences, v. 276, 1976. p. 546-557.

POORBEHZADI, K,; YAZDI, A,; SHARIFI TESHNIZI, E,; DABIRI R.; Investigating of Geotechnical Pa-rameters of Alluvial Foundation in Zaram-Rud Dam Site, North Iran. International Journal of Min-ing Engineering and Technology, 1(1), 2019. p. 33-44.

RAMEZANİ, J.; TUCKER, R. D. The Saghand region, Central Iran: U-Pb geochronology, petrogenesis and implications for Gondwana tectonics. American Journal of Science, 303, 2003. p. 622–665.

ROBB, L. Introduction to ore-forming processes. Blackwell publishing, 2005.

RUMBLE, D.; SPEAR, F. S.; ROBERT, M. H. Wonesite: a new rock-forming silicate from the Post Pond Volcanics. Vermont. American Mineralogist, 66, 1981. p. 100-105.

SEWARD, T. M.; BARNS, H. L. Metal transport by hydrothermal ore fluids. In H. L., 1997.

SHELLY, D. Microscopic study of Igneous and Metamorphic rock. Champan and Hall: London, 1993.

SMITH, M. P.; HENDERSON, P.; CAMPBELL, S.; Fractionation of the REE during hydrothermal processes: Constrains from the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta., Vol. 64, No. 18, 2000. p. 3141- 3160.

TAYLOR, H. P. Oxygen isotope studies of hydrothermal mineral deposits. In: BARNES, H. L. (ed.): Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.: New York, 1967. p.109–142.

TITAYEVA, N. A. Nuclear geochemistry. CRC Presses, 1994.

WILLIAMS, P. J.; BARTON, M. D.; JOHNSON, D. A.; FONTBOTE, L.; DE HALLER, A.; MARK, G.; OLIVER, N. H. S.; MARSCHIK, R.; Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Deposits: Geology, Space-Time Distribution, and Possible Modes of Origin 2005 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology 100th Anniversary, special vol., 2005. p.371–405.

YAZDI, A.; ASHJA-ARDALAN, A.; EMAMI, M. H.; DABIRI, R.; FOUDAZI, M. Chemistry of Minerals and Geothermobarometry of Volcanic Rocks in the Region Located in Southeast of Bam, Kerman Prov-ince. Open Journal of Geology, 7, 2017. p. 1644-1653. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2017.711110




Como Citar

Shirazi, M. S., Lotfi, M., Nezafati, N., & Gourabjiripour, A. (2021). Geology, Geochemistry and Some Genetic Discussion of The IIC Anomaly, Bafq Ditrict, Central Iran. Revista Geoaraguaia, 11(1), 95-117. Recuperado de




Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)